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High level programming language vs low level what is the difference between them and first of all what is programming?. Programming is the means by which programmers write instructions and direct a set of commands, or what is known as code for a computer; To direct it and tell it how to deal with the data, and how to perform a series of required actions called an algorithm.


High level programming language vs low level



Programming language definition:


Programming languages ​​are the mediator between people and a computer, and it is a special language used by programmers to write software, texts, or a set of instructions and commands arranged in a logical order, written based on a set of rules; To guide the computer to carry out specific tasks, which are determined according to each of the programming languages, and are written in the form of codes using the programming languages, i.e. the languages ​​of the computer, and then these commands and instructions pass through a set of stages until they are executed on the computer.


What are the reasons for the invention of programming languages?


The reason for this is simply that our language contains phrases and sentences that can be understood by several meanings, but a computer, like any electrical device, only understands the language of the machine that depends on the binary (0,1) system corresponding to the On-Off states ) which means stopping or starting the machine by a human. Therefore, languages have been developed for him that is similar to the language of mathematics in that their expressions have only one meaning.


And the number 1 or the number 0 is called a bit, and this is an abbreviation of the term binary system (Binary digit) and from the number 1 and the number 0 it was possible to build a numerical code to represent all numbers, letters and special signs used in writing.


Meaning that the computer cannot understand any human language, so humans have developed a language for it to communicate with it and called these languages the name of programming languages, which facilitate communication with the computer and direct commands and instructions for it to implement.


How do programming languages enable us to communicate with a computer?


Programming languages enable us to communicate with the computer by providing a set of instructions and instructions that it can understand and implement, and programming languages, like human languages, have foundations and rules that we must follow and abide by, and the number of programming languages ​​is very large and it is estimated between 500 to 2,000 active programming languages ​​are used for general purposes according to some statistics, but most programmers worldwide only use a few dozen of them.


In addition to the commands that the computer is required to implement, they are written using programming languages in the form of codes, ie computer languages, as the computer uses programming languages ​​through which it can perform the tasks required of it and solve some problems. In order to better understand programming languages, it is necessary to understand how computer systems work.


High-level programming languages:


High-level programming languages: They are considered a type of programming language, which does not require the programmer to enter into the special details related to the application of language commands at the computer level, and this type of programming language is easy to learn and apply for For people who are a novice in programming, as it is easy to use because of its vocabulary and words close to languages used by humans in speech (such as English), easy to use to some extent and easy to understand, modify and review, and it isolates the implementation semantics of computer architecture from the program specification, which simplifies development.


Examples of high-level languages:


Examples of high-level languages vary, including:


BASIC is one of the simplest and most popular programming languages, developed in 1964. It is considered one of the easiest languages to learn because it allows interaction between the programmer and the machine. It is also based largely on the Fortran programming language. Its name stands for Beginners All Purposes Symbolic Instruction Code.


C language, The C language is one of the best programming languages for writing systems software, and most operating systems are written in the C language, such as Windows, and had it not been for the emergence and use of the C language for more than 30 years, it would not have been possible for the emergence of modern and object languages, Like C++, or at least what it became as you know it today.


C++: It is a language similar to C and is considered a complement to it, but it is more secure than it and includes many modern technologies, and C++ has formed the cornerstone of many applications that we rely on in our daily lives.


C#: It is a modern, multi-pattern programming language, developed in the year 2000 AD, and was initially established to compete with the Java language, and C# developed very quickly, and certainly this is under extensive support from Microsoft.


COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is a high-level programming language specifically designed to be used in commercial applications and the RPG (Report program generator language), which needs to input large amounts of data. Data, save, and retrieve it.


Java: A high-level programming language that was invented in 1992. The Java language was a development of C++, an object-based language.


Lisp: is an acronym for list processing, which means list processing, and it is a functional programming language, and one of the oldest languages that is still widely used, designed in order to facilitate data processing, some praise it as a miracle of software, and the best programming tool Especially the hacker.


Python: a high-level programming language, this language is easy to write, read, and easy to learn, and it is a scalable language that has continued to be developed to this day.


Delphi: Delphi is a programming language derived from the Pascal language, which is a programming language used to update programs and applications quickly and easily, and is a role model for developing smartphone applications, databases, and operating systems in various forms.


Ruby language: a multi-use object-oriented programming language that first appeared in 1995 AD. Linux (Linux), Macintosh (Mac), and operating systems (Windows).


Ada is a programming language with several uses, designed by a team, at the request of the US Department of Defense, and the design language that began in the eighties was Ada 83.


Prolog is a logical programming language, originally designed for use in language processing programs.


Pascal language: It is a multi-use, high-level programming language, characterized by ease of use the programmer with these languages does not need extensive information, and this language is characterized by clarity, strength, and ease of creating programs through it.

FORTRAN: An acronym for Formula Translation, Fortran is one of the oldest programming languages that is still popular today, used for engineering applications and scientific fields.


Low-level programming languages


Low-level languages: They are languages close to machine language and understood only by specialists, unlike high-level programming languages, which use vocabulary and symbols that are considered complex for the novice programmer; Therefore low-level languages are sometimes described as close to the language of electronic devices.


Low-level languages are simple and immediately understood by a computer, but they are considered difficult to use since there are many technical details that a programmer has to remember. The programs you write with are fast to execute and also take up little memory.


Programming languages are divided based on their proximity to human languages into two types. The difference between them lies simply in how close or similar they are to the language that humans understand. What are the sections of programming languages and what are their characteristics?


Low-level programming languages are sometimes divided into two categories, first-generation and second generation.


1- The first generation of low-level programming language


  • It is considered the first generation of programming language in general; Therefore, it is called 1GL, a machine language. Here commands are written in the form of a string consisting of binary numbers (0, 1) so that the computer can understand them directly, and it performs very simple operations and deals directly with what is stored in the main memory of the device.
  • The first generation language is considered the only language that the microprocessor can process directly without the need for prior conversion.
  • Machine language is not used directly nowadays, because it requires doing many details that high-level language does automatically.

2- The second generation of low-level programming language


  • The second generation of it is known as 2GL, which is called Assembly Languages.
  • The commands are written in the form of abbreviations in the English language, which are easy to understand, the assembly language is translated into machine language, and the assembly language deals with the internal components of the computer directly.
  • Simple instructions are compiled directly into machine language with ease.
  • Although assembly language is not specific to the microprocessor, it is considered a second-generation language.


Data and digital libraries


We can divide the information that can be stored in the digital library into two categories: data and metadata. Data: It is a general term used to describe information that is encoded in a digital form, whether this word is used in the singular or in the plural, it is a source of controversy, and in the field of computers, it is one of the singular nouns used to express the plural noun.


As for what is behind the data, it is the data that describes the data, and although many do not like this word, it has become common for circulation, and there are several types of “behind the data”, namely: metadata such as bibliographic information, and beyond synthetic data: which is information about Formats, structures, and beyond administrative data: These include information about rights, access permissions, and other information used for the purposes of managing access to information. One of the meta-data elements is the determinant: one that identifies or assigns a particular action or address to the outside world.


The distinction between “data” and “meta-data” often depends on the nature of the context. Cards in indexes and extraction tools are usually treated as “meta-data”; Because it describes other data, but it is treated at another time as "data", especially in the direct index, or in a data observatory for abstracts.


Conclusion


Programming languages are divided based on their proximity to human languages into two types. The difference between them lies simply in how close or similar they are to the language that humans understand. What are the sections of programming languages and what are their characteristics? The first type: is high-level language (this is close to the language that humans understand).Type 2: Low-level or simple-level language (close to machine language).